Important management factors should be considered during the growth of the rice crop. These include planting method, water, fertilizer, weeds, and pests and diseases.


Planting the crop on time will help to produce a fast-growing, uniform crop that will have higher yields and will be better able to compete with weeds and pests. The best time of planting depends on the locality, variety, water availability, labour, and the last harvested time.

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Water management

Rice is typically grown in bunded fields that are continuously flooded up to 7−10 days before harvest. Continuous flooding helps ensure sufficient water and control weeds. Lowland rice requires a lot of water.

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Fertilizer management

Most soils provide only limited amount of nutrients to the crops, therefore fertilizers need to be applied to increase grain yield. In some cases, fertilizers are also added to improve the soil’s physical condition.

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Weed management

Weeds compete directly with the rice plants and reduce rice yield. Presence of each 1 kg dry matter of weeds is equivalent to 1 kg grain loss. Weeds cause maximum yield loss within the first 20–50 days after crop establishment.

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Pests and diseases

The potential insect pests include rice hispa, yellow stem borer, rice bug, brown plant hopper, leaf folders, caseworm, rice gundhi bug, gall midge and thrips. Rice hispa is abundant during Sali and ahu seasons than in boro. The incidence of brown plant hopper is relatively greater in the boro season.

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